# Trees

• C++ Reading: Chapter 7 Trees
• Java Reading: Chapter 8 Trees

A tree is a set of nodes in a parent-child relationship.

## Tree Terminology

• Each node has a unique parent.
• Excepting the root has no parent.
• A node $$v$$ with parent $$u$$ is a child of $$u$$.
• Two nodes with the same parent are siblings.
• A node is internal if it has one or more children.
• An external node is also called a leaf.
• A node $$u$$ is an ancestor of $$v$$ if $$u = v$$ or $$u$$ is the ancestor of the parent of $$v$$.
• A node $$u$$ is a descendant of $$v$$ if $$v$$ is an ancestor of $$u$$.
• A subtree at node $$v$$ is the tree consisting of all descendants of $$v$$.
• “Descendant” is a noun. “Descendent” is an adjective.
• An edge is a pair of nodes $$u$$ and $$v$$ such that $$u$$ is parent of $$v$$ or vice-versa.
• A path is a sequence of nodes such that any consecutive pair of nodes form an edge.
• The depth of $$v$$ is the number of ancestors of $$v$$, not counting $$v$$ itself.
• The height of $$v$$ is the distance from $$v$$ to its deepest descendant.
• The height of a tree is the depth of its deepest external node.
• The level $$d$$ is the set of all nodes at depth $$d$$.
• In a binary tree, each node has at most two children.
• A binary tree is proper if each node has zero or two children.

## General Tree Representation

A general linked tree structure defines each node with a value, a reference to a parent, and a sequence of references to children.

    node parent(node v)
sequence& children(node v)

bool isRoot(node v)
bool isExternal(node v)


Trees are naturally recursive.

We can also recursively traverse a tree, visiting each node in either pre-order, in-order, or post-order. We can also traverse in depth-first order using a stack, or breadth-first order using a queue.

## Binary Trees

A binary tree is simplified because it does away with the child sequence.

    class node
{
T value
node left
node right
}


It’s trivially easy to define

    bool isRoot(node v)
bool isExternal(node v)


A note about the textbook’s definition of tree structures: it is very specific in its use of iterators. For example, Code Fragment 7.24 in the C++ book (similar to C.F. 8.22 in the Java). This obsession with iterators is not necessary. A more pure implementation of a pre-order traversal would look more like this:

function binaryPreorder(v)
visit(v)
if v.left exists
binaryPreorder(v.left)
if v.right exists
binaryPreorder(v.right)

An in-order:

function binaryInorder(v)
if v.left exists
binaryInorder(v.left)
visit(v)
if v.right exists
binaryInorder(v.right)

A post-order:

function binaryPostorder(v)
if v.left exists
binaryPostorder(v.left)
if v.right exists
binaryPostorder(v.right)
visit(v)

Here’s an alternative formulation of a pre-order traversal, showing the stack usage explicitly.

$$S$$.push($$v$$)
while $$S$$ is not empty
$$v$$ = $$S$$.top()
visit($$v$$)
$$S$$.pop()
if $$v$$.right exists
$$S$$.push($$v$$.right)
if $$v$$.left exists
$$S$$.push($$v$$.left)

Here’s the same pre-order traversal, but with a queue instead of a stack. Note that breadth-first traversal emerges naturally.

$$Q$$.enqueue($$v$$)
while $$Q$$ is not empty
$$v$$ = $$Q$$.front()
visit($$v$$)
$$Q$$.dequeue()
if $$v$$.right exists
$$Q$$.enqueue($$v$$.right)
if $$v$$.left exists
$$Q$$.enqueue($$v$$.left)

We can easily define recursive algorithms to give the depth and height of a node. The height of a proper binary tree:

function computeHeight(node $$v$$)
if $$v$$.isExternal()
return 0
else
return 1 + max(computeHeight($$v$$.left), computeHeight($$v$$.right)

The height of an improper binary tree:

function computeHeight(node $$v$$)
if $$v$$.left and $$v$$.right
return 1 + max(computeHeight($$v$$.left), computeHeight($$v$$.right)
else if $$v$$.left
return 1 + computeHeight($$v$$.left)
else if $$v$$.right
return 1 + computeHeight($$v$$.right)
else
return 0

The following properties must hold for node count $$n$$, height $$h$$, external count $$n_E$$, and internal count $$n_I$$.

• $$1 \le n_E \le 2^h$$
• $$h \le n_I \le 2^h - 1$$
• $$h + 1 \le n \le 2^{h+1} - 1$$
• $$\log(n+1) - 1 \le h \le n - 1$$

If a tree is proper then:

• $$2h + 1 \le n \le 2^{h+1} - 1$$
• $$h + 1 \le n_e \le 2^h$$
• $$h \le n_I \le 2^h - 1$$
• $$\log(n+1) - 1 \le h \le (n - 1) / 2$$
• If non-empty, $$n_E = n_I + 1$$

The maximum number of nodes at level $$l$$ is $$2^l$$.

Note, it’s straightforward to define a general tree in terms of a binary tree.

## Binary Search Trees

Invariant: All of the values in the left subtree of a node $$v$$ are less than or equal to the value at $$v$$, while all of the values in the right subtree of a node $$v$$ are greater than the value at $$v$$.